Thermal Watch https://www.thermalwatch.org.in/ en Banner1 https://www.thermalwatch.org.in/slideshow/banner1 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Banner1</span> <div class="field field--name-field-upload-banner field--type-image field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Upload Banner</div> <div class="field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/banner1.jpg" width="1440" height="500" alt="" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/users/admin" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thwmaster</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 27/05/2021 - 16:34</span> Thu, 27 May 2021 11:04:34 +0000 thwmaster 500 at https://www.thermalwatch.org.in https://www.thermalwatch.org.in/slideshow/banner1#comments Banner2 https://www.thermalwatch.org.in/slideshow/banner2 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Banner2</span> <div class="field field--name-field-upload-banner field--type-image field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Upload Banner</div> <div class="field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/banner2.jpg" width="1440" height="500" alt="" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/users/admin" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thwmaster</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 27/05/2021 - 16:33</span> Thu, 27 May 2021 11:03:05 +0000 thwmaster 499 at https://www.thermalwatch.org.in https://www.thermalwatch.org.in/slideshow/banner2#comments Banner3 https://www.thermalwatch.org.in/slideshow/banner3 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Banner3</span> <div class="field field--name-field-upload-banner field--type-image field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Upload Banner</div> <div class="field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/banner3.jpg" width="1440" height="500" alt="" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/users/admin" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thwmaster</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 27/05/2021 - 16:12</span> Thu, 27 May 2021 10:42:19 +0000 thwmaster 498 at https://www.thermalwatch.org.in https://www.thermalwatch.org.in/slideshow/banner3#comments Slide 1 https://www.thermalwatch.org.in/slideshow/slide-1 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Slide 1</span> <div class="field field--name-field-upload-banner field--type-image field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Upload Banner</div> <div class="field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/slide-1-tw.png" width="1440" height="500" alt="" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/users/admin" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thwmaster</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 06/05/2021 - 23:50</span> Thu, 06 May 2021 18:20:28 +0000 thwmaster 494 at https://www.thermalwatch.org.in https://www.thermalwatch.org.in/slideshow/slide-1#comments Slide 2 https://www.thermalwatch.org.in/slideshow/slide-2 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Slide 2</span> <div class="field field--name-field-upload-banner field--type-image field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Upload Banner</div> <div class="field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/slide-2-tw.png" width="1440" height="500" alt="" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/users/admin" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thwmaster</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 06/05/2021 - 23:33</span> Thu, 06 May 2021 18:03:25 +0000 thwmaster 495 at https://www.thermalwatch.org.in https://www.thermalwatch.org.in/slideshow/slide-2#comments ITPCL - Financially Viable or Not? https://www.thermalwatch.org.in/resources/itpcl-financially-viable-or-not <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">ITPCL - Financially Viable or Not?</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The power sector is one of the highly stressed sectors, responsible for 40% of the total stressed assets in India. The trigger for a financial analysis of IL&amp;FS Tamil Nadu Power Company Limited (ITPCL) came about by reports of environmental pollution in the nearby villages due to the power plant’s operation and media reports on the financial crisis of the parent group Infrastructure Leasing &amp; Financial Services Limited (IL&amp;FS).</p> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/users/admin" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thwmaster</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 20/08/2019 - 13:20</span> <div class="field field--name-field-attachments field--type-file field--label-hidden field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf"> <a href="https://www.thermalwatch.org.in/sites/default/files/Resource/Financial%20Health%20analysis%20of%20ITPCL.pdf" type="application/pdf">Financial Health analysis of ITPCL.pdf</a></span> </div> <span class="a2a_kit a2a_kit_size_37 addtoany_list" data-a2a-url="https://www.thermalwatch.org.in/resources/itpcl-financially-viable-or-not" data-a2a-title="ITPCL - Financially Viable or Not?"><a class="a2a_button_facebook"></a><a class="a2a_button_twitter"></a><a class="a2a_button_google_gmail"></a><a class="a2a_button_whatsapp"></a><a class="a2a_button_telegram"></a><a class="a2a_button_linkedin"></a><a class="a2a_button_reddit"></a><a class="a2a_button_email"></a><a class="a2a_button_copy_link"></a></span> Tue, 20 Aug 2019 07:50:00 +0000 thwmaster 458 at https://www.thermalwatch.org.in https://www.thermalwatch.org.in/resources/itpcl-financially-viable-or-not#comments Marine geoengineering - not a quick fix for climate crisis https://www.thermalwatch.org.in/resources/marine-geoengineering-not-quick-fix-climate-crisis <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Marine geoengineering - not a quick fix for climate crisis</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.38; text-align: center; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 3pt;">-by <a datatype="" href="https://www.cag.org.in/author/niraj-bhatt-researcher-environment-and-climate-change" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); text-decoration-line: none; outline: -webkit-focus-ring-color auto 5px; outline-offset: -2px; font-family: Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; text-align: center;" typeof="skos:Concept">Niraj Bhatt, Researcher - Environment and Climate Change</a></p> <h1 dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.38;margin-top:20pt;margin-bottom:6pt;"><span id="docs-internal-guid-9b719cfd-7fff-add6-4be0-3c889a666354"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-style: italic; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Introduction to geoengineering:</span></span></h1> <p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.38;text-align: justify;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span id="docs-internal-guid-9b719cfd-7fff-add6-4be0-3c889a666354"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">As life on our planet struggles in Anthropocene to arrest the increasing greenhouse gas emissions and resultant global heating, a “new technological magic bullet” is gaining traction among humans. Proponents of geoengineering advocate it as the only way to meet 2015 Paris climate agreement targets while maintaining our current over-consumptive lifestyles. </span><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_engineering" style="text-decoration-line: none;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(17, 85, 204); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; text-decoration-line: underline; text-decoration-skip-ink: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Geoengineering</span></a><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;"> or climate engineering as it is also known, is deliberate and large scale manipulation of Earth’s natural processes. Geoengineering is being proposed as a technological fix to counteract the pernicious effects of climate crisis. Geoengineering is an umbrella term that encompasses technologies falling under two categories: greenhouse gas removal and solar radiation management (SRM). Carbon dioxide (CO</span><span style="font-size: 6.6pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: sub; white-space: pre-wrap;">2</span><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">) </span><span style="font-size: 6.6pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: sub; white-space: pre-wrap;"> </span><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">removal is the main subcategory under greenhouse gas removal technologies to remove climate warming gases from the atmosphere, while SRM technologies aim to cool the planet by reflecting away sunlight from the </span><a href="https://scied.ucar.edu/shortcontent/stratosphere-overview" style="text-decoration-line: none;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(17, 85, 204); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; text-decoration-line: underline; text-decoration-skip-ink: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">stratosphere</span></a><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;"> itself, thus preventing greenhouse gases to absorb solar radiation and heating our planet.</span></span></p> <p> </p> <p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.38;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span id="docs-internal-guid-9b719cfd-7fff-add6-4be0-3c889a666354"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;"><img alt="" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" src="https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/qmgrNGY1sLFlg-zbe5B5NvV9BrTyIud-JLGmWbtU3QkLF_U3m4KubiHRa-Nqo2m474a4bEtyNkotpduQdk46rwAN8E5MgaWcgea58UowNtTA_dhRXAVxI--3NNNPwUTe7x1bH18" style="border: none; width: 681px; height: 380px;" /></span></span></p> <p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.38;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span id="docs-internal-guid-9b719cfd-7fff-add6-4be0-3c889a666354"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Geoengineering proposals include modifying land, air and water to either reflect more sunlight back into space or reducing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Image courtesy: University of Leeds</span></span></p> <h1 dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.38;text-align: justify;margin-top:20pt;margin-bottom:6pt;"><span id="docs-internal-guid-9b719cfd-7fff-add6-4be0-3c889a666354"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-style: italic; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Marine geoengineering:</span></span></h1> <p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.38;text-align: justify;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span id="docs-internal-guid-9b719cfd-7fff-add6-4be0-3c889a666354"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Greenhouse gas removal and SRM both rely on oceans, land and atmosphere to deploy their technological solutions. In the first part of this three part series, we focus on technologies under marine geoengineering that propose large scale modification of our oceans to arrest greenhouse gases and reflect solar radiation. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) defines marine geoengineering as “a deliberate intervention in the marine environment to manipulate natural processes, including to counteract anthropogenic climate change and/or its impacts, and that has the potential to result in deleterious effects, especially where those effects may be widespread, long-lasting or severe". Ocean fertilisation under greenhouse gas removal and ocean foam or microbubble technology under SRM are the two marine geoengineering technologies that have attracted geoengineering proponents.</span></span></p> <p> </p> <p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.38;text-align: justify;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span id="docs-internal-guid-9b719cfd-7fff-add6-4be0-3c889a666354"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Oceans cover 71 percent of Earth’s surface and are the largest carbon sinks. Ocean life is supported by sunlight that penetrates through the ocean waters and this heat trapped by oceans plays a part in heating our planet. Phytoplankton (microscopic species in oceans) harness solar energy, consume CO</span><span style="font-size: 6.6pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: sub; white-space: pre-wrap;">2</span><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;"> and release oxygen (O</span><span style="font-size: 6.6pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: sub; white-space: pre-wrap;">2</span><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">) while growing, and are the base of the ocean food web. Phytoplankton consume carbon dioxide on a scale equivalent to forests and other land plants. Part of this carbon is carried to the deep ocean when phytoplankton die, and part transferred to different layers of the ocean as phytoplankton are eaten by other ocean creatures, which themselves reproduce, generate waste, and die. Growth of phytoplankton in oceans is controlled by the availability of necessary nutrients for growth, particularly iron and nitrogen. Proponents of ocean fertilisation plan to accelerate this process by supplying iron and nitrates in the ocean to enhance phytoplankton growth. They say that higher phytoplankton growth will lead to higher CO</span><span style="font-size: 6.6pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: sub; white-space: pre-wrap;">2</span><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;"> sequestration from the atmosphere.</span></span></p> <p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.38;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span id="docs-internal-guid-9b719cfd-7fff-add6-4be0-3c889a666354"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;"><img alt="" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/MOukxcvmTicXULgKFcQCiyR0laxE3dTM7t5-EigizqyaoPW1axIvJlTtcUsnhwZfJ2zP1tmOOmQ40xN6rbDQSWZv2fABJfVmJSpA8NozP4UOlsck-ohLlhDK8RdEDxrC1K2Ak7M" style="border: none; width: 681px; height: 296px;" /></span></span></p> <p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.38;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span id="docs-internal-guid-9b719cfd-7fff-add6-4be0-3c889a666354"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Ocean fertilisation ignores emissions reduction  and focuses on putting nutrients in oceans to spur phytoplankton growth believing it will sink extra carbon to the ocean floor. Image courtesy: Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung Foundation</span></span></p> <p> </p> <p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.38;text-align: justify;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span id="docs-internal-guid-9b719cfd-7fff-add6-4be0-3c889a666354"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Ocean foam or microbubble are SRM technologies that aim to increase the reflectivity of the ocean waters to reflect  more sunlight back into space, thus reducing the heat trapped by the oceans. This is usually achieved by spraying chemical foaming agents on the ocean surface, kept floating using latex/polystyrene. Proponents say microbubble technology can be deployed with ease as ships travelling around the globe can be used to distribute chemical surfactants that can stay as microbubbles for weeks, while some groups are also </span><a href="https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/2015JD024201" style="text-decoration-line: none;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(17, 85, 204); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; text-decoration-line: underline; text-decoration-skip-ink: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">researching</span></a><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;"> whether brightening ship </span><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wake" style="text-decoration-line: none;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(17, 85, 204); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; text-decoration-line: underline; text-decoration-skip-ink: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">wakes</span></a><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;"> can reduce climate change.</span></span></p> <h1 dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.38;text-align: justify;margin-top:20pt;margin-bottom:6pt;"><span id="docs-internal-guid-9b719cfd-7fff-add6-4be0-3c889a666354"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-style: italic; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Risks associated with marine geoengineering:</span></span></h1> <p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.38;text-align: justify;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span id="docs-internal-guid-9b719cfd-7fff-add6-4be0-3c889a666354"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Proponents of ocean fertilisation and ocean foam technologies overlook the fact that oceans already are our largest and most important carbon sink on Earth, storing around 50 times as much carbon as in the atmosphere. Oceans are also providing us more than 50 percent of oxygen and have complex and highly evolved ecosystems which we have not fully understood. To effect meaningful change, a quarter of the global ocean surface  would have to be fertilised. The impacts of artificial fertilisation on such a large industrial scale in our oceans cannot be foreseen or quantified. High growth of phytoplanktons leads to floating mat-like structures on the ocean surface (algal blooms) that can physically hinder mixing of oxygen from the atmosphere with surface waters. This leads to the creation of dead zones by depleting oxygen in the water below, resulting in large scale death of fish and other large ocean animals. This will have a deep impact on the global fishing community and threaten human health as fish are an important protein source for more than half the human population. Livelihood of coastal communities dependent on thriving ocean ecosystems will be threatened. There is enough </span><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/461347a" style="text-decoration-line: none;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(17, 85, 204); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; text-decoration-line: underline; text-decoration-skip-ink: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">evidence</span></a><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;"> through scientific studies to show that the amount of carbon sunk to the ocean floor is either very low or undetectable because much of the carbon is brought back to the atmosphere via food chain.</span></span></p> <p> </p> <p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.38;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span id="docs-internal-guid-9b719cfd-7fff-add6-4be0-3c889a666354"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;"><img alt="" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" src="https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/LoRf4JkwPxr3s5TFhff7N5tHMEnmrwGo8BS_FuNrQ0vumS9lsZCQGQn2_nZXVz17M-lT-mgv34Dk2-ZuwSFda-rrWQH7xuhkOp7H6kRSuqLYDj44zIVetUyqEHcWu0HKKRXnSMo" style="border: none; width: 700px; height: 380px;" /></span></span></p> <p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.38;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span id="docs-internal-guid-9b719cfd-7fff-add6-4be0-3c889a666354"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Ocean fertilisation could have negative impacts on ocean ecosystems, depleting oxygen, causing harmful algal blooms and disrupting the marine food chain. Image courtesy: Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung Foundation</span></span></p> <p> </p> <p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.38;text-align: justify;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span id="docs-internal-guid-9b719cfd-7fff-add6-4be0-3c889a666354"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Microbubble technology is flawed in its concept itself as it overlooks a pressing problem of microplastic pollution in our oceans and its implementation would lead to more microplastics in the oceans. We already </span><a href="https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/commentisfree/2019/jun/24/the-earths-climate-is-paying-for-our-addiction-to-plastic" style="text-decoration-line: none;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(17, 85, 204); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; text-decoration-line: underline; text-decoration-skip-ink: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">know</span></a><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;"> the deleterious impacts of plastic pollution on marine ecosystems and on human health, and plastic industry itself is dependent on fossil fuels and contributes to the emission of greenhouse gases. Having an artificial layer of reflective chemicals on the ocean’s surface would deplete oxygen levels below the surface, leading to the death of marine life. Microbubble technology will cut access of light for the ocean life, destroying marine ecosystems and lowering ocean productivity. Without access to enough light, oceans would not be able to absorb the carbon that they already do and we would have extra greenhouse gases to deal with in the atmosphere. While large scale deployment would certainly have an impact by reflecting sunlight, we cannot predict what these will be, owing to lack of research on tempo-spatial impacts on marine ecosystems. As ocean waters are connected through ocean currents and impact weather patterns globally, tinkering with this natural process would lead to unpredictable changes in ocean currents, leading to disruptions in rainfall patterns across the world. The resultant cycles of floods and droughts would lead to rise in geopolitical tensions across regions. Economically powerful nations could modify weather patterns anywhere in the world deploying chemical surfactants at chosen sites, effectively giving them a handle to punish other nations for reasons they believe in. The BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in the year 2011 saw the company spray tonnes of chemical surfactants to disperse the spilled oil, but it was later </span><a href="https://www.motherjones.com/environment/2010/08/bp-ocean-dispersant-corexit/" style="text-decoration-line: none;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(17, 85, 204); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; text-decoration-line: underline; text-decoration-skip-ink: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">discovered</span></a><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;"> that this chemical surfactant killed much more marine life than what the spilled oil could have. Microbubble technology is a solution for man made problems that if deployed, will create far larger and complex problems to solve.</span></span></p> <p> </p> <p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.38;text-align: justify;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span id="docs-internal-guid-9b719cfd-7fff-add6-4be0-3c889a666354"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Marine geoengineering is the only branch of geoengineering that has any international regulatory framework and is subject to regulations under ‘</span><a href="http://www.imo.org/en/OurWork/Environment/LCLP/Pages/default.aspx" style="text-decoration-line: none;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(17, 85, 204); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; text-decoration-line: underline; text-decoration-skip-ink: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Waste and Other Matter, London Protocol 1996</span></a><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">’. Under this convention, ocean fertilisation is specifically prohibited, but new experiments continue to be announced in different parts of the world under the guise of expanding local fish numbers for commercial  purposes, with the </span><a href="https://permaculturenews.org/2012/11/07/ocean-fertilization-promotes-toxic-algae-in-haida-gwaii/" style="text-decoration-line: none;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(17, 85, 204); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; text-decoration-line: underline; text-decoration-skip-ink: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">project</span></a><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;"> in open seas off the coast of Haida Gwaii being the most controversial ocean iron fertilisation project till date. </span></span></p> <p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.38;text-align: justify;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span id="docs-internal-guid-9b719cfd-7fff-add6-4be0-3c889a666354"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Here, we have discussed only two main categories of marine geoengineering projects that are under different stages of conceptualisation to be implemented globally. The Joint Working Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (</span><a href="http://www.gesamp.org" style="text-decoration-line: none;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(17, 85, 204); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; text-decoration-line: underline; text-decoration-skip-ink: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">GESAMP</span></a><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">) has published an expert </span><a href="http://www.gesamp.org/site/assets/files/1996/rs98e.pdf" style="text-decoration-line: none;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(17, 85, 204); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; text-decoration-line: underline; text-decoration-skip-ink: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">review</span></a><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;"> of a wide range of proposed marine geoengineering techniques.</span></span></p> <p> </p> <p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.38;text-align: justify;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span id="docs-internal-guid-9b719cfd-7fff-add6-4be0-3c889a666354"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">In India, marine geoengineering is at discussion levels only with the main </span><a href="https://www.currentscience.ac.in/Volumes/116/01/0040.pdf" style="text-decoration-line: none;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(17, 85, 204); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; text-decoration-line: underline; text-decoration-skip-ink: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">concerns</span></a><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;"> of Indian policy makers around governance mechanisms for such large scale trans-boundary projects. There is justified apprehension around the financing, governance and implementation issues before making a start. The ecological risks and aversion to large scale modifications to natural processes has kept India away from marine geoengineering projects.</span></span></p> <p> </p> <p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.38;text-align: justify;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span id="docs-internal-guid-9b719cfd-7fff-add6-4be0-3c889a666354"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: &quot;EB Garamond&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; font-variant-numeric: normal; font-variant-east-asian: normal; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">It is crucial that we identify and relate to the fact that any meaningful path to meeting the 2015 Paris Agreement targets goes through our shift away from fossil fuel-dominated societies to alternative and sustainable sources for energy. We cannot continue getting electricity from coal, and let our transport run on petrol and diesel, and then leave it on the oceans to soak up the greenhouse gases. The marine geoengineering methods are untested, prohibitively expensive and, have sufficient known negative impacts that warrant us to tread with caution.</span></span></p> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/users/admin" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">thwmaster</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 17/07/2019 - 15:26</span> <div class="field field--name-field-attachments field--type-file field--label-hidden field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf"> <a href="https://www.thermalwatch.org.in/sites/default/files/Resource/Geoengineering_Marine_01_ThermalWatch_June_2019.pdf" type="application/pdf">Geoengineering_Marine_01_ThermalWatch_June_2019.pdf</a></span> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline clearfix"> <h3 class="field__label inline">Tags</h3> <ul class='links field__items'> <li><a href="/tags/geoengineering" hreflang="en">Geoengineering</a></li> <li><a href="/tags/marine-geoengineering" hreflang="en">Marine Geoengineering</a></li> <li><a href="/tags/ocean-fertilization" hreflang="en">Ocean Fertilization</a></li> <li><a href="/tags/global-energy-supply" hreflang="en">Global Energy Supply</a></li> <li><a href="/tags/climate-change" hreflang="en">Climate Change</a></li> <li><a href="/tags/carbon-capture" hreflang="en">Carbon Capture</a></li> <li><a href="/tags/clean-energy" hreflang="en">Clean Energy</a></li> <li><a href="/tags/carbon-dioxide-removal" hreflang="en">Carbon dioxide removal</a></li> <li><a href="/tags/stoppwatch" hreflang="en">Stoppwatch</a></li> <li><a href="/tags/newsletter" hreflang="en">Newsletter</a></li> <li><a href="/tags/front-page" hreflang="en">front page</a></li> <li><a href="/tags/june" hreflang="en">June</a></li> <li><a href="/tags/2019" hreflang="en">2019</a></li> </ul> </div> <span class="a2a_kit a2a_kit_size_37 addtoany_list" data-a2a-url="https://www.thermalwatch.org.in/resources/marine-geoengineering-not-quick-fix-climate-crisis" data-a2a-title="Marine geoengineering - not a quick fix for climate crisis"><a class="a2a_button_facebook"></a><a class="a2a_button_twitter"></a><a class="a2a_button_google_gmail"></a><a class="a2a_button_whatsapp"></a><a class="a2a_button_telegram"></a><a class="a2a_button_linkedin"></a><a class="a2a_button_reddit"></a><a class="a2a_button_email"></a><a class="a2a_button_copy_link"></a></span> Wed, 17 Jul 2019 09:56:48 +0000 thwmaster 456 at https://www.thermalwatch.org.in Cartoon Booklet on EIA Process (Hindi) https://www.thermalwatch.org.in/resources/cartoon-booklet-eia-process-hindi <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Cartoon Booklet on EIA Process (Hindi)</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 0px 0px 10px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(80, 80, 80); font-family: Roboto, sans-serif; font-size: 16px;">The book aims to demystify and educate communities and general public on the administrative and environmental regulations and laws on the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Process, with specific reference to Thermal Power Plants (TPPs). The people can learn while they read the comics with their family!</p> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/users/vishnu" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">vishnu</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 25/10/2016 - 16:13</span> <div class="field field--name-field-attachments field--type-file field--label-hidden field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf"> <a href="https://www.thermalwatch.org.in/sites/default/files/Resource/CAG%20-%20TPP%20-%20EIA%20-%20%20Hindi.pdf" type="application/pdf">CAG - TPP - EIA - Hindi.pdf</a></span> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline clearfix"> <h3 class="field__label inline">Tags</h3> <ul class='links field__items'> <li><a href="/tags/eia" hreflang="en">EIA</a></li> <li><a href="/tags/environmental-impact-assessment" hreflang="en">Environmental Impact Assessment</a></li> <li><a href="/tags/thermal-power-plants" hreflang="en">Thermal Power Plants</a></li> <li><a href="/tags/cartoon-booket" hreflang="en">Cartoon Booket</a></li> <li><a href="/tags/comics" hreflang="en">Comics</a></li> <li><a href="/tags/hindi" hreflang="en">Hindi</a></li> <li><a href="/tags/frontpage" hreflang="en">frontpage</a></li> </ul> </div> <span class="a2a_kit a2a_kit_size_37 addtoany_list" data-a2a-url="https://www.thermalwatch.org.in/resources/cartoon-booklet-eia-process-hindi" data-a2a-title="Cartoon Booklet on EIA Process (Hindi)"><a class="a2a_button_facebook"></a><a class="a2a_button_twitter"></a><a class="a2a_button_google_gmail"></a><a class="a2a_button_whatsapp"></a><a class="a2a_button_telegram"></a><a class="a2a_button_linkedin"></a><a class="a2a_button_reddit"></a><a class="a2a_button_email"></a><a class="a2a_button_copy_link"></a></span> Tue, 25 Oct 2016 10:43:38 +0000 vishnu 303 at https://www.thermalwatch.org.in https://www.thermalwatch.org.in/resources/cartoon-booklet-eia-process-hindi#comments